The leaves are variously referred to as coriander leaves, fresh coriander, Chinese parsley, or cilantro (particularly in North America).

The leaves have a different taste from the seeds, with citrus overtones. Many experience an unpleasant "soapy" taste or a rank smell and avoid the leaves.he flavours have also been compared to those of the stink bug, and similar chemical groups are involved (aldehydes). There appears to be a genetic component to the detection of "soapy" versus "herby" tastes.[9]It should not be confused with culantro (Eryngium foetidum L.) which is a close relative to coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) but has a distinctly different appearance, a much more potent volatile leaf oil[8] and a stronger smell.

The fresh leaves are an ingredient in many South Asian foods (such as chutneys and salads), in Chinese dishes, in Mexican cooking, particularly in salsa andguacamole and as a garnish, and in salads in Russia and other CIS countries. Chopped coriander leaves are a garnish on Indian dishes such as dal. As heat diminishes their flavour, coriander leaves are often used raw or added to the dish immediately before serving. In Indian and Central Asian recipes, coriander leaves are used in large amounts and cooked until the flavour diminishes.[11] The leaves spoil quickly when removed from the plant, and lose their aroma when dried or frozen.


The variety C. s. vulgare has a fruit diameter of 3–5 mm (0.12–0.20 in), while var. microcarpum fruits have a diameter of 1.5–3 mm (0.059–0.12 in). Large-fruited types are grown mainly by tropical and subtropical countries, e.g. Morocco, India and Australia, and contain a low volatile oil content (0.1-0.4%). They are used extensively for grinding and blending purposes in the spice trade. Types with smaller fruit are produced in temperate regions and usually have a volatile oil content of around 0.4-1.8%, so are highly valued as a raw material for the preparation of essential oil.[14]The dry fruits are known as coriander or coriandi seeds. In India they are called dhania.[12][13] The word "coriander" in food preparation may refer solely to these seeds (as a spice), rather than to the plant. The seeds have a lemony citrus flavour when crushed, due to terpenes linalool and pinene. It is described as warm, nutty, spicy, and orange-flavoured.

It is commonly found both as whole dried seeds and in ground form. Seeds can be roasted or heated on a dry pan briefly before grinding to enhance and alter the aroma. Ground coriander seed loses flavour quickly in storage and is best ground fresh.

Coriander seed is a spice in garam masala and Indian curries, which often employ the ground fruits in generous amounts together with cumin. It acts as a thickener. Roasted coriander seeds, called dhana dal, are eaten as a snack. It is the main ingredient of the two south Indian dishes:sambhar and rasam. Coriander seeds are boiled with water and drunk as indigenous medicine for colds.

Coriander seeds are used in brewing certain styles of beer, particularly some Belgian wheat beers.[15] The coriander seeds are used with orange peel to add a citrus character.Outside of Asia, coriander seed is used for pickling vegetables, and making sausages in Germany and South Africa (see boerewors). In Russia and Central Europe, coriander seed is an occasional ingredient in rye bread as an alternative to caraway. Coriander seeds are used in European cuisine today, though they were more important in former centuries.[citation needed]


Thai cuisine is really four cuisines. Each representing the four main regions of Thailand: Northern, Northeastern otherwise knows as Isan, Central, and Southern. Each sharing theirs and their neighbors foods.

Burma to its northwest, Yunnan and Laos to the north, Vietnam and Cambodia to the east with Malaysia its the south, makes Thailand uniquely situated at the crossroads of Southeast Asia.
Culturally and gastronomically diverse, Thailand represents an amalgamation of the foods of Asia. Thailand shares the same cultural ethnicity as well as climate and geography of its neighbors.

Southern Thai curries contain coconut milk and fresh turmeric. These are staples of Thai Southern cooking while the Northeast province of Isan prides itself on making fiery dishes using dried red chillies and curry paste..

Many dishes now eaten in Thailand were originally Chinese dishe.s. The Chinese also introduced the a wok and the technique of deep-frying and stir-frying. Their dishes included noodles, oyster sauce and soybean products. Thai curies include massaman curry, which they borrowed from India and Persia.


Mediterranean cuisine is the food from the 21 countries that surround the Mediterranean Sea. The foods include fresh fruits and vegetables, poultry and seafood, rice, grains, beans and pastas. Red meat is also part of their diet but to a lesser extent than other Western countries. But when one thinks of Mediterranean food, olive oil should come to mind.



Preparing food with heat, fire or coals is an activity unique to humans. It's called cooking, one of the miracles of human life.

Cooking has played an important role in human evolution for at least 250,000 years. Heat and in variations in intensity,duration and medium provides chefs with the tools needed to prepare meals.

Cooking fish, without the presence of heat, occurs in sushi because of a chemical reaction between the raw fish and the acidic content of rice glazed with vinegar.  This also occurs in Ceviche, a traditional South American dish where the fish is cooked with the acids of lemon and limes.

Food is part of every culture and every cuisine is unique to its local. In Europe, where the  loss of monetary independence has wrecked economic havoc,a country's cuisine remains itsmost defining symbol.A nations' food provides a sense of national identity.

The cuisines of Western countries are diverse but they do share common characteristics. Compared with Asian cooking, meat occupies a more prominent place in meals, and in substantially higher amounts. And since the flavorings of spices and herbs can't penetrate meat, Western meals depend on sauces and marinades.

Within Europe, there is the Mediterranean region, the Northern European region and Eastern European region; each geographic region having similar climates and its countries growing the same plants.

Dairy products and wild game are used extensively as is the use of wheat to make flour for breads and pasta.



Northeast Asian cooking originated in China, Japan and Korea. 

The foods, spices, and seasonings from this part of the world are also used as medicine as these people believe plants and spices promote a long and healthy life. 


The Chinese emphasized fats, oils, and sauces in their food while the Japanese prefer deep-frying (tempura), raw fish and edible algae. 


Korea, owing to its colder climate depended on hot-chili and other spices to prolong shelf life and stimulate the body’s self-correcting forces.


Southeast Asian cooking originated in Cambodia, Laos, Thailand and Vietnam. 

These peoples settled around the Mekong river, a vibrant and fertile area, fed by the mighty Mekong.

Chefs here utilize quick stir-frying, steaming, and boiling. They cook fresh vegetables, spice them with colorful powders, add seeds, meat and rice and serve them on the street.The real street food. They provide nutrition, sustenance and joy.

They prepare and cook their foods with basil, cilantro, lemon grass and mint because that is what grew in their world. And while Northeast Asian cooking emphasized soy sauce, Southeast Asian cooking substitutes fish sauce in its place.

In Vietnam, Phở is king. A smorgasbord of rice noodles, fragrant herbs, and beef or chicken. They are cooked in a flavorful broth on street stalls everywhere. The accompaniments include chili peppers, lime wedges, bean sprouts, coriander, green onions, white onions and Thai basil. Phở is eaten for breakfast and often at other times of the day. It is one of the great joys of travelling in Southeast Asia.

The Hotpot is another one dish wonder of Vietnam. A boiling cauldron of broth, seafood, vegetables, herbs and spices are placed on tables to produce a very flavorful and healthy meal. Meat can also be substituted although they prefer to grill or barbecue meats.

The Hotpot requires the freshest of ingredients. Variations in hotpots include versions from Lao, Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam, China and Japan. 

One Hotpot in particular, the mushroom hotpot, provides a treasure trove of anti-cancer and immune stimulating compounds that were produced by various species of mushrooms. These mushrooms and the compounds they produce are discussed with as medicinal foods in Colorless Food.


Thai food blends flavors from across Southeast Asia. Thai cooking places emphasis on lightly prepared dishes with strong aromatic flavor. Thai cuisine is known for its spiciness and ability to balance three or four tastes senses in the meal: sour, sweet, salty, and bitter.

"Thai food juggles disparate flavors to create unique creations. 


Thai food originated

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