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Certain drugs cause addictions.

Drugs are addictive because they bind to receptors in the brain.

Addiction is the result of spatial similarities.

 

Why some natural products are very addictive while others are less so and the great preponderance, not at all, is due to the physical structure of the plant compound.

Those, whose structure binds perfectly with receptors in the brain are highly addictive.

When drugs bind to membrane receptors in the brain, euphoria results.

Unhealthy foods are also addictive.

Sugar, fat and salt target the reward center in the brain. These foods ability to be addictive is, like cocaine and heroin, based on receptors in the brain.

Addictions are not simply flaws in character. They are a chemical dependency based on the phenomenon called receptor recruitment.

 All addictions utilize this same molecular mechanism.

Cigarettes, narcotics, painkillers, mood elevators, tranquilizers, anti anxiety, attention deficit drugs, pornography, virtual violence, and alcohol create their addictions by stimulating the synthesis of the respective receptor or by prolonging the effect at their binding sites.

Many send signals via the hypothalamus, an area of the brain that regulates pleasure and gratification. others bind as endorphins to dull pain.

 

Once receptors are formed they locate themselves on the nuclear membrane and await a ligand to bind with. Once bound, this receptor-ligand complex enters the DNA matrix and stimulates more receptor production. More receptors means more receptors in waiting.

Receptors embedded in membranes will remain in a state of agitation until bound. When these type receptors become bound or stimulated, they produce euphoria.

When receptors remain unbound they become agitated and irritable.

It is the receptor-ligand complex that binds to DNA and that results in more receptors in waiting. These are the first neurons that fire. They culminate elsewhere.

The biological process by which all herbs, drugs and foods produce their effects is through receptor binding.

Receptor binding is the attachment of a ligand to a binding domain on a nerve cell. 

The stimulation may originate elsewhere but all sensations are felt, perceived or otherwise understood, by the neuron exchanges that take place in the brain.

Specific areas control specific functions. One area of interest is the reward and gratification center.

Despite many distinct actions in the brain, all types of addictions converge in producing a common action, activation of the brain's reward circuitry.

The most important part of this circuitry is the mesolimbic dopamine system.

Compounds that result in bindings in this system are addictive. All addictions that lead to dopamine bindings in the Ventral Tegmental area of the brain are based on reward-related motivation.

These dopamine receptors respond to both hedonic stimulants as well as negative ones.

Eating chocolate and living through an earthquake both involve increased amounts of dopamine.

Proper binding is indicative of health. Excessive binding results in addiction.

Improper receptor binding is responsible for most diseases throughout the body. This is especially true when carbohydrates or fats are involved.

Addictions take place in the brain.  It is a chronic process by which steady-state levels of a substance becomes incorporated into normal being.

Addiction requires the need for greater doses to achieve the same result or experience. This is termed tolerance.

Un-satisfaction, due to the absence of the drug, is dependence.  

Tolerance and dependence are the classical signs of drug addiction.

 

Unhealthy foods are less tasty than the natural whole foods they replace. Yet they are craved more because they stimulate an increase in anandamide receptor synthesis. Anandamide or cannabinoid receptors are bound by marijuana and have a role in gratification.

 

Opioids 

Opioid-like drugs, the strongest drugs prescribed to relieve pain, act by binding to a select group of receptors (known as mu) in the brain.

Unfortunately those drugs, Vicodin, Oxycontin, Percocet and their equivalents are highly addictive.

The effectiveness of opioids in relieving pain is unrivaled, as is their potential for addiction.

 

There is an alarming increase in teenage abuse of opioid drugs. Together with the psycho-stimulants, Adderall and Ritalin used to treat attention deficit disorders, a new generation of Americans are developing addictions to drugs.

The poor become sick because of unhealthy and addictive food, while the insured become addicted to prescription drugs. 

Diabetes, allergies, ulcers, heartburn, hypertension, cancer, heart disease, erectile dysfunction, sleeplessness, stress, depression and euphoria are all treated with drugs, pharmaceutical drugs.

Doctors have appointments with patients because patients need these drugs. Drugs are prescribed because they are accepted methods of treatment.

Healing via foods needs to replace drugs.

 

Receptor Targets

Nature provides cell membranes with receptors that recognize and bond with specific molecules. This capability or binding, allows cells to obey commands and adapt to its constantly changing environment.

Proper interactions depend on functional molecules matching with the receptor on the membrane.

The creation of new conformations of chemically identical compounds, which the food industry has done, causes metabolic difficulties.

These unanticipated metabolic consequences cause disorders after years of continual exposure. For example, fructose interferes with leptin and ghrelin molecules in the hypothalamus. two molecules that regulate hunger. This help explains the alarming rise of obesity in America and throughout the world.

Receptors are the molecular locks that many different kinds of key can open.

These receptors exist for one purpose and one purpose only, to anxiously await a molecular mate or key.

Binding induces a feeling of satisfaction and euphoria.  The lack of a mate on the other hand produces the feeling of irritability and anxiety.

Euphoria returns with another dose of the addictive substance.

 

The addictive quality of eating made it a target for scientists to exploit. The ability to stimulate the receptors in the reward center is not limited to drugs. Fat, sugar and salt also trigger these receptors.

Corporate interests are best served when people are addicted to the foods, games and inactivity they create. Conversely, the world's drug cartel’s interests are best served when their products are both restricted by law but freely available by prescription.

Drugs are a way of life for many.

They are a way to rebel against the stifling, stressful and oppressive world. They come, somehow, packaged as "cool".

When children experiment with drugs, many develop addictions.

In other children, experimentation addiction does not lead to addiction.

But it is a fact that after repeated exposure to certain molecules, the brain becomes accustomed to their presence and can’t function properly without them.

It is this physiological weakness that marketers are able to exploit and enslave our children.

The interests and forces that benefit from unhealthy children are dependent on the power of addiction.

Their freedom to enslave is not only permitted but is actually subsidized by a government that is out of touch with the needs of its citizens.

Receptors in the brain bind to certain foreign substances. These substances instill euphoria, dulls pain or in some other way causes the sensation of pleasure. Gratification via molecular binding..

Olfactory and gustatory stimuli for example, interact with receptors to produce the sense of smell and taste. Light and sound waves become vision and hearing by their respective receptors.

Receptors become more sensitive to the stimuli, the more they are exposed to them. The chemistry of the brain is significantly altered with just the expectation of stimuli or thought of gratification.

The receptors affinity to bond with a mate, coupled to the discomfort that results from its absence makes a substance, or an activity, or even a feeling addictive. The need to satisfy receptors makes a substance addictive. 

Consumers often disregard the lack of taste and nutrition in these foods.  They favor them because the chemical changes they cause in the brain produce the feeling of euphoria.

Brain activity is needed to interpret all the sensory data received via the senses. Brain activity is directed by receptor bonding. An addiction occurs when receptors require foreign substances to bind to. The effect of these substances are to either instill euphoria, alter mood or dull pain. They accomplish this by mimicking the natural molecules that normally bind with these receptors (beta-endorphins), or by prolonging the effects of the neurotransmitter serotonin.

On a molecular level, the addictions caused by narcotics, painkillers or food are indistinguishable.


Neurotransmitter are chemical messengers that transmit electrical signals across the gap between nerve cells or synapse. Transmitters are stored in tiny sacs or membrane bound vesicles. The arrival of electrical impulses or action potential causes the vesicles to merge membranes with the nerve and empty its contents into the synapse. This activates the receptor on the other side of the synapse.

The action potential was thus able to “jump the gap” to the adjoining nerve cell.

Nerve endings are specialized secretory machines that synthesize simple amino acid-style transmitters (adrenaline, serotonin).

Some nerves code for slightly larger peptides that need to travel beyond the adjacent neuron to exert their effect.

The transmission of information from one nerve to another is via the release of one of a series of neurotransmitter. These neurotransmitter are small chemicals that can quickly be synthesized or unassembled.

Neurotransmitter have specific receptors that they can bind with.

Catecholamines, serotonin, dopamine, and endorphins bind with their respective receptors throughout the brain.

Their collective result determines a person’s mood, drive and feeling. Their cumulative effect makes us feel the way we do.

Neuro transmissions can also occur via small peptides or neuropeptides.

These compounds, factors, or stimulating hormones affect behavior.

Too little or too much or if there are defective receptors, can cause disorders like Parkinson's disease, depression and schizophrenia.

These diseases are treated with drugs that mimic the action of the deficient neurotransmitter or block the overabundant ones from activating receptors.

Nature, too, modulates the supply of neurotransmitter through G protein-coupled receptors. These receptors are named for their ability to activate G proteins. When activated, G- proteins are split into two active components. One, an alpha subunit and the other, a beta-gamma subunit.

These active subunits amplify the original signal of the neurotransmitter.

Receptors are studded along a cell’s membrane. They bind with drugs because of the drugs similarity to the natural or endogenously produced agent.

Serotonin for example can bind with at least fourteen type of membrane receptors. Some receptors types are implicated in causing depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder and drug addiction. Others play a role in anxiety, aggression and sleep.

Receptors can be blocked just as well.

Pharmacological treatment of mental disorders involves inhibiting, blocking or in some other way restricting the binding of a receptor.

Its alternative method is to stimulate or amplify the binding of a receptor.

Receptors are capable of causing major changes throughout the body by amplifying the signal via the genetic code.

Peptides gain access to DNA via an escort. The interactions between proteins and escorts are carefully orchestrated to produce a series of turning on and off of genes. These signals can be amplified via hormones or restricted to local nerves.

Steroids on the other hand, gain access to the cell's DNA directly and have no involvement with G-coupled proteins

More in this category: « G Protein Receptors Teen Addiction »
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